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Table 4 Fuel analysis results of the lime-treated wheat straw solid fraction (experimental and corrected for 85% calcium recycle) original wheat straw feedstock and untreated wood

From: Pilot-scale conversion of lime-treated wheat straw into bioethanol: quality assessment of bioethanol and valorization of side streams by anaerobic digestion and combustion

Source composition Lime-treated wheat straw solid fraction (experimental) Lime-treated wheat straw solid fraction (corrected for 85% calcium recycle) Wheat straw original feedstock (harvest 2003) Wood (untreated, average)[28]
Parameter Unit     
Ash (550°C) wt%dry 27.2   12.6 ---
Ash (815°C) wt%dry 27.0 19.5 11.5 1.5
Volatiles wt%dry 68.4 75.5 70.1 80.7
Moisture wt%wet 3.4a 50b 7.7 49.2
Higher heating value, measured MJ/kgdry 13.4 14.3 16.6 19.8
Lower heating value MJ/kgdry 12.4 13.2 15.6 18.5
Lower heating value (at 50% MC) MJ/kgwet 5.0 5.4 6.6 8.0
C wt%daf 43.1 44.9 46.5 51
H wt%daf 5.8 6.1 5.6 6.1
N wt%daf 1.5 1.5 1.7 0.3
O wt%daf 44.8 46.6 45.8 43
S wt%daf 4.56 0.71 0.15 0.06
Cl wt%daf 0.20 0.21 0.31 0.04
F wt%daf 0.0031 0.0031 --- 0.0024
Al mg/kgdry 121 133 185 211
As mg/kgdry 5.4 5.9 < dl less than dl
B mg/kgdry 5.2 5.7 4.1 9
Ba mg/kgdry 3.2 3.5 3.6 143
Ca mg/kgdry 52000 8600 4700 13000
Cd mg/kgdry Less than dl --- 0.15 0.5
Co mg/kgdry 7.3 8.1 55 0.51
Cr mg/kgdry 10.2 11.2 0.2 5
Cu mg/kgdry 9.1 10.1 1.6 17
Fe mg/kgdry 160 170 220 120
K mg/kgdry 3000 3300 15000 2000
Li mg/kgdry Less than dl --- 0.2 Less than dl
Mg mg/kgdry 870 36 1105 769
Mn mg/kgdry 33 36 14 214
Mo mg/kgdry Less than dl --- 1.9 0.55
Na mg/kgdry 1500 1660 200 300
Ni mg/kgdry 5 5.8 0 8
P mg/kgdry 5100 5600 485 486
Pb mg/kgdry Less than dl --- 1.1 32
Sb mg/kgdry 1.4 1.6 1.8 1.8
Se mg/kgdry Less than dl --- 1.9 1
Si mg/kgdry 40000 44500 28000 900
Sn mg/kgdry 0 0 0.20 1.2
Sr mg/kgdry 23 25 18 14
V mg/kgdry 0.3 0.3 --- ---
Zn mg/kgdry 25 27 0.6 0.4
  1. aAfter thermal drying.
  2. bAfter mechanical dewatering with Pneumapress.
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