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Table 1 Emission assumptions for transportation and size reduction operations.

From: The greenhouse gas emissions performance of cellulosic ethanol supply chains in Europe

Operation Biomass form Average Carbon Emissions from fossil fuel kgCO2e.odt-1
Transport from roadside Softwood logsa 4.6
  Softwood chipsb 7.2
  Softwood bundlesb 7.2
  Straw balesb 6.6
Size reductionc Softwood (all forms) 8.5
  1. These values were used to normalise feedstock emission estimates.
  2. aEstimated emissions from fuel consumption assuming a 107 km trip – the average transport distance for logs in Sweden [24, 25]. bEstimated emissions from fuel consumption assuming 50 km trip [26]. cHammermill – 12 month operation window [27].