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Table 2 Normalised embodied carbon estimates for biomass feedstocks

From: The greenhouse gas emissions performance of cellulosic ethanol supply chains in Europe

(delivered to the plant as chips/bales)
Carbon emissions
  Low Mid High
Softwood a 24.7 46.0 85.7
Straw 2.6 N/A 177.6
  1. aThe values shown are derived from literature values for softwood products that fall within the following ranges: logs: 25 kgCO2e.odt-1; forestry residues: 27 to 132 kgCO2e.odt-1 and energy crops: 29 to 73 kgCO2e.odt-1 [8, 26, 28].