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Table 1 Cost estimates for lignocellulosic ethanol production

From: The commercial performance of cellulosic ethanol supply-chains in Europe

Reference Conversion processa Capacity
(tonnes dry biomass year-1)
Ethanol production cost
(2005US$ litre-1)
Von Sivers and Zacchi (1996) [4] Enz./dilute acid/concentrated acid 100,000
(softwood)
0.76/0.81/0.79
Lynd (1996) [5] Enz. (SSF) 592,000
(hardwood)
0.4
National Renewable Energy Laboratory:
Wooley et al. (1999) [3]
Aden et al. (2002) [6]
Ruth and Jechura (2003) [7]
Enz. (SSF) 700,000
(hardwood)/(corn stover)
0.47/0.34
Wingren (2003) [8] Enz. (SHF)/Enz. (SSF) 196,000
(softwood)
0.8/0.68–0.64
Sassner et al. (2008) [26] Enz. (SSF) 200,000
(hardwood/corn stover/softwood)
0.71/0.71/0.57
  1. aProcess classified according to principal hydrolysis step: Enz. = enzymatic hydrolysis; SSF = simultaneous saccharification and fermentation; SHF = separate hydrolysis and fermentation.
  2. Estimates are normalised for currency, year and units.