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Table 1 Cost estimates for lignocellulosic ethanol production

From: The commercial performance of cellulosic ethanol supply-chains in Europe

Reference Conversion processa Capacity (tonnes dry biomass year-1) Ethanol production cost (2005US$ litre-1)
Von Sivers and Zacchi (1996) [4] Enz./dilute acid/concentrated acid 100,000 (softwood) 0.76/0.81/0.79
Lynd (1996) [5] Enz. (SSF) 592,000 (hardwood) 0.4
National Renewable Energy Laboratory: Wooley et al. (1999) [3] Aden et al. (2002) [6] Ruth and Jechura (2003) [7] Enz. (SSF) 700,000 (hardwood)/(corn stover) 0.47/0.34
Wingren (2003) [8] Enz. (SHF)/Enz. (SSF) 196,000 (softwood) 0.8/0.68–0.64
Sassner et al. (2008) [26] Enz. (SSF) 200,000 (hardwood/corn stover/softwood) 0.71/0.71/0.57
  1. aProcess classified according to principal hydrolysis step: Enz. = enzymatic hydrolysis; SSF = simultaneous saccharification and fermentation; SHF = separate hydrolysis and fermentation.
  2. Estimates are normalised for currency, year and units.