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Table 2 Average transport cost assumptions for feedstock price normalisation

From: The commercial performance of cellulosic ethanol supply-chains in Europe

Operation Country of origin Biomass form Average cost 2005US$ odt-1 Comment Reference
Transport Sweden Logs 11.6 Average Scandinavian transport cost assuming 107 km trip [12]
UK Logs 21.7 Average UK transport cost assuming 107 km trip  
UK/Sweden Chips 14.0 Average transport cost assuming 50 km trip [22]
International Chips 25.0 1500 km trip – non-dedicated ship  
  Bundles 44.3   
  Logs 47.7 10,000 km trip – non-dedicated ship  
UK Bales (straw) 14.9 Average transport cost assuming 50 km trip [13]
Size reduction UK Sweden All 3.7 Hammermill – 12 month operation window [22]