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Table 4 Mass balance and costs assumptions for softwood reference conversion processes

From: The commercial performance of cellulosic ethanol supply-chains in Europe

Feedstock/co-product cost Mass balance
    Enzymatic process Dilute acid process
  Units Cost/value (2005US$ unit-1) Input (unit odt-1) Output (unit odt-1) Input (unit odt-1) Output (unit odt-1)
     Ethanol CO2 Solid fuel Waste (solid + liquid)   Ethanol CO2 Solid fuel Waste (solid + liquid)
Biomass kg   620          
   Hexose     219 245   156 620 173 190   257
   Pentose    60     60 60     60
   Lignin    280    252 28 280    273 7
   Other    40     40 40     40
Chemicals             
   SO2 kg 0.20 15.48     15.48 0.00     
   H2SO4   0.07 0.00      63.20     63.20
   NaOH (50%)   0.20 28.96     28.96 28.96     28.96
   NH3 (25%)   0.27 2.36     2.36 1.68     1.68
   H3PO4 (50%)   0.67 0.52     0.52 0.36     0.36
   Defoamer   2.68 0.56     0.56 0.44     0.44
   (NH4)2PO4   0.20 2.76     2.76 2.60     2.60
   MgSO4.7 H2O   0.59 0.12     0.12 0.12     0.12
   Enzymes 10^6 Filter paper unit 2.54 9.36     9.36 0.00     
   Electricity-buy MWh 40.13 0.18      0.18     
   Cooling water m3 0.02 72.48      65.44     
   Process water m3 0.19 3.36     3.36 3.20     3.20
Employees             
  Person 80,269           
Co-products             
   Solid fuel kg 0.11           
   CO2   0           
   Waste   0