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Table 3 Xylose mass balance of maleic acid pretreatment of wheat straw.

From: Optimization of the dilute maleic acid pretreatment of wheat straw

Run Pre-treatment time (min) Pre-treatment temperature (°C) Maleic acid concentration (mM) Xylose monomers in aqueous (%) Furfural in aqueous (%) Xylose oligomers in aqueous (%) Xylose in pressed material (%). Not corrected for a, b, and c Xylose in pressed material (%). Corrected for a, b, and c Total (%)
     a b c d e a+b+c+e
1 10 130 11 0 0 2 18 18 20
2 50 130 89 44 1 22 25 19 86
5 50 170 11 5 3 47 31 26 81
6 10 170 89 85 7 1 15 6 100
7 10 170 11 1 1 26 37 34 61
8 50 170 89 72 18 1 11 4 94
9 10 130 89 15 0 35 26 21 72
11 50 130 11 1 0 11 31 30 42
14 30 130 50 7 0 35 27 23 65
15 50 150 50 66 3 11 24 16 96
16 10 150 50 36 1 32 26 19 87
17 30 150 89 78 4 5 20 12 99
18 30 150 11 2 0 11 32 30 43
19 30 170 50 75 10 4 17 9 98
c×6 30 150 50 58 (2.2) 2 (0.1) 17 (1.0) 24 (0.3) 17 (0.2) 94 (1.4)
  1. c×6 = centre runs, six repeats. Average value given. Standard deviation between brackets. Percentages are expressed as xylose equivalents, as a fraction of total xylose equivalents present in untreated wheat straw.