Ethanol production by F. oxysporum. Under anaerobic conditions (A) and micro-aerobic conditions (B). BG concentration was 75 g L-1 in all cases. All fermentations took place in bioreactors of 1 L working volume at 30°C and pH 6.0. Values are the mean of three determinations and vertical error bars represent standard deviation. The NaOH concentration for pretreatment was 10 g NaOH per 100 g dry BG (black circle – Non pretreated spent grain, open circle – pretreated spent grain).