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Table 1 Mean count of yeast cells expressing mitochondrial targeted green fluorescent protein indicating mitochondrial membrane damages from tubular to aggregated morphologies caused by furfural treatment.

From: Furfural induces reactive oxygen species accumulation and cellular damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Hour Category* Control 25 mM Furfural 50 mM Furfural
6 Tubular 80 ± 13 50 ± 5 10 ± 2
6 Fragmented 19 ± 13 41 ± 2 45 ± 3
6 Aggregated 1 ± 0.4 9 ± 2 45 ± 2
24 Tubular 94 ± 4 27 ± 8 4 ± 4
24 Fragmented 6 ± 2 49 ± 4 33 ± 23
24 Aggregated < 1 ± 1 24 ± 10 66 ± 28
48 Tubular 17 ± 5 16 ± 10 0
48 Fragmented 79 ± 3 53 ± 15 0
48 Aggregated 4 ± 2 31 ± 6 100 ± 0
  1. Prior to adding furfural, 87%, 12% and 1% of cells contained tubular, fragmented and aggregated mitochondria, respectively. Data represent averages of three experiments with standard error indicated. At least 100 cells were examined at each time point.
  2. * Tubular mitochondria are a network of evenly distributed tubules that are often connected; fragmented mitochondria are small evenly distributed spherical structures; aggregated mitochondria are small and clustered spherical structures that are not evenly distributed.