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Table 2 Mean count of yeast cells displaying vacuole damages from a single large to numerous small sized vacuoles caused by furfural treatment.

From: Furfural induces reactive oxygen species accumulation and cellular damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Hour Category Control 25 mM Furfural 50 mM Furfural
6 Single/large 86.5 ± 6 48 ± 8 30.0 ± 3
  2-4/Medium 8.5 ± 1 22 ± 4 35.5 ± 4
  > 4/Small 5.0 ± 5 30 ± 12 34.5 ± 6
24 Single/large 77 ± 13 36 ± 16 7.5 ± 8
  2-4/Medium 16 ± 6 21 ± 0.2 18.0 ± 13
  > 4/Small 7 ± 8 43 ± 16 74.5 ± 21
48 Single/large 79.5 ± 1 28 ± 5 1 ± 1
  2-4/Medium 15.5 ± 4 22 ± 5 7 ± 3
  > 4/Small 5.0 ± 3 49 ± 7 92 ± 4
  1. Prior to adding furfural, 96%, 2% and 2% of cells contained large, medium and small shaped vacuoles, respectively. Data represent averages of two experiments with standard error indicated. At least 100 cells were examined at each time point.