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Table 1 Differences in stillage processing in the scenarios investigated

From: Techno-economic evaluation of stillage treatment with anaerobic digestion in a softwood-to-ethanol process

Scenario Washing and drying Pellet production Biogas upgrading Turbine system Burnt in CHP (besides sludge) Co-products* DH
Reference Yes Part of sfrac of stillage (dried) No HP Part of sfrac of stillage, syrup, bg Pellets No
A1 Yes Part of SF Yes HP Part of SF, tail gas Up bg, pellets No
A2 Yes TA of SF No HP-LP Bg Pellets Yes
A3 No - Yes HP-LP Sfrac of stillage, tail gas Up bg Yes
A4 No - No HP-LP Sfrac of stillage, bg - Yes
B - - Yes HP-LP Sfrac of eff, tail gas Up bg Yes
  1. *The electricity generated is not included in co-products. Although it is produced in all scenarios, in some cases electricity consumption exceeds production.
  2. Bg: biogas; CHP: combined heat and power; DH: district heating; eff: effluent of anaerobic digestion; HP: high-pressure; LP: low-pressure; SF: solid fuel; Sfrac: solid fraction; TA: total amount; Up: upgraded.