Degradation of single toxin with changing concentrations on the pretreated CS by A. resinae ZN1 and the effect on the consequent simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation (SSF). (a) Changing acetic acid level. (b) Changing formic acid level. (c) Changing furfural level. (d) Changing 5-hydromethylfurfural (HMF) level. Degradation conditions were 5 days at 25°C in the static incubator. SSF conditions were 10% (wt/wt) of the solid loading, 15.0 FPU/g dry solid matter (DM), at pH 5.0, 50°C at the first 12-h prehydrolysis stage and 37°C at the sequential SSF stage, 150 rpm, 50 ml/250 ml flask, incubated in the water bath shaking incubator. FPU, unit of filter paper cellulase.