Degradation of complex toxins on the pretreated CS by A. resinae ZN1 and the effect on the consequent SSF. (a) Acetic acid and furfural. (b) Acetic acid and HMF. (c) Acetic acid, furfural, and HMF. Degradation conditions: 5 days at 25°C in the static incubator. SSF conditions: 10% (wt/wt) of the solids (DM) loading, 15.0 FPU/g DM, at pH 5.0, 50°C at the first 12-h prehydrolysis stage and 37°C at the sequential SSF stage, 150 rpm, 50 ml/250 ml flask, incubated in the water bath shaking incubator. FPU, unit of filter paper cellulase.