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Table 3 A comparison of mixing by vortex with carborundum, needle wounding and sonication on GUSPlus expression.

From: A high-throughput transient gene expression system for switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) seedlings

Treatment* GUS-positive seedlings
  Total, n* Mean ± SE† %
Control (sonication) 28 9.3 ± 1.2c 18.7
VCS 63 21.0 ± 2.1a 42.0
NWS 48 16.0 ± 2.3b 32.0
  1. NWS = needle wounding and sonication; VCS = vortex, carborundum and sonication
  2. *Three replicates of 50 seedlings per replicate were tested in each treatment.
  3. † Means followed by the same letter (a, b, c) were not significantly different at the 5% level as determined by The Tukey multiple comparison test.