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Table 2 Chemical composition of fresh hemp before and after ensiling for 4 and 8 months without or with formic acid (1.0% of fresh material) or preserved with urea (3.0% of dry material)

From: Evaluation of preservation methods for improving biogas production and enzymatic conversion yields of annual crops

  Harvest year 2008 Harvest year 2009
Components, percentage of dry matter Fresh Ensiled without additives Ensiled with formic acid Fresh Ensiled without additives Preserved with urea
  Month 0 Month 4 Month 8 Month 4 Month 8 Month 0 Month 4 Month 8 Month 4 Month 8
Dry matter, % 30.3 27.8 27.6 28.5 29.3 63.4 58.5 64.5 66.7 68.5
WSCa 5.7 1.0 0.9 7.2 6.6 1.7 2.4 1.6 1.3 1.4
   Glucose 3.2 0.8 0.7 3.8 3.6 1.0 1.2 0.9 1.0 1.0
   Fructose 2.4 X X 2.1 1.8 0.5 0.5 X X X
Glucansb 7.5 3.8 3.1 6.4 6.9 2.3 4.8 2.3 4.6 2.2
Cellulose 37.1 41.2 36.3 37.5 40.7 35.9 38.3 42.4 46.5 39.8
Arabinoxylans 12.0 7.8 10.0 9.4 9.7 11.8 8.4 9.3 7.4 9.4
Mannans 2.5 2.7 2.0 2.5 2.4 2.1 2.3 2.4 2.7 1.9
Galactans 1.9 1.1 0.8 1.8 1.7 1.8 1.5 1.5 1.9 1.6
Galacturonic acid 5.7 5.5 5.2 5.3 6.4 4.6 5.0 3.7 5.1 3.9
Lignin 16.9 12.9 16.6 13.4 14.5 16.8 14.0 14.7 13.0 15.0
Protein 7.5 7.5 8.1 8.1 8.1 6.9 6.9 6.3 9.4 10.0
Ash 8.0 9.7 8.2 7.9 7.9 5.0 6.8 6.3 6.6 6.2
  1. Samples were extracted with acetone. Water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and fructose were determined from the filtrates of the blended crop.
  2. aNon-structural carbohydrates expressed as total monosaccharides.
  3. bGlucans from non-cellulose parts.
  4. X = < 0.5% of dry matter.