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Table 1 Toxicity levels for next-generation biofuels

From: Engineering microbes for tolerance to next-generation biofuels

  Tolerance (% v/v) Microorganism Reference
Biogasolines    
Butanol 1.5% Escherichia coli [1]
  1.5% Zymomonas mobilis [1]
  1.5% Pseudomonas putida [17]
  1.6% Clostridium acetobutylicum [55]
  2.0% Saccharomyces cerevisiae [1]
2-Methyl-1-butanol (2MB) 0.1% Escherichia coli [70]
3-Methyl-1-butanol (3MB) 0.1% Escherichia coli [71]
Geraniol 0.05% Escherichia coli [7]
1-Propanol 5.0% Escherichia coli [28]
Biodiesels    
Farnesyl hexanoate 1.0%a Escherichia coli [7]
Geranyl acetate 0.5%a Escherichia coli [7]
Bioaviation fuels    
Pinene 0.5%a Escherichia coli [7]
Limonene 0.025% Escherichia coli [7]
  1. aBiofuel is inhibitory, but not lethal; percentages listed are where growth drops to 75% of the normal, unstressed levels.