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Table 1 Biomass composition and calorific values of different feedstocksa

From: Identification and thermochemical analysis of high-lignin feedstocks for biofuel and biochemical production

Common name Scientific name Ontology Total lignin (%) Cellulose (%) Ash (%) Calorific value (MJ/kg) Reference
Tobaccob Nicotiana benthamiana Stem 13.6 31.1 7.0 16.3  
Tobaccoc N. tabaccum Stem 17.4 to 21.0 26.0 to 30.9 15.0 to 30.0   [1618]
Arabidopsis b Arabidopsis thaliana Stem 22.5 29.7 8.3 15.9  
Arabidopsis c Arabidopsis thaliana Stem 11.5 to 20.0 29.0 to 35.0 13.4   [1921]
Switchgrassb Panicum virgatum Aerial 29.4 35.7 3.5 16.2  
Switchgrassc P. virgatum Aerial 15.0 to 29.8 33.5 to 46.1 4.6 to 5.7   [2225]
Eastern cottonwoodb Populus deltoides Stem 31.5 32.7 2.6 17.6  
Eastern cottonwoodc P. deltoides Aerial 19.8 to 25.6 42.2 to 55.8 1.0   [22, 26, 27]
Black cottonwoodb Populus trichocarpa Stem 32.1 41.4 2.7 17.3  
Black cottonwoodc P. trichocarpa Aerial 25.2 to 28.9 40.3 to 45.0 1.7 to 2.0   [22, 28, 29]
Olive (DE)b Olea europaea Stone 39.0 33.7 1.2 19.4  
Olive (DE)c O. europaea Stone 20.6 to 26.5 29.8 to 34.4 0.01 to 0.7   [20, 30]
Eastern black walnut (DE)b Juglans nigra Shell 40.4 28.2 1.4 17.9  
Black walnut (DE)c J. spp. Shell 18.6 to 28.5 54.0 to 60.2 0.6 to 1.1   [31]
Peach (DE)b Prunus persica Stone 41.6 25.6 2.9 20.5  
Peach (DE)c P. persica Stone 40.0 to 50.0 0.4 (FW) 0.7   [17, 3234]
Coconut (DE)b Cocus nucifera Shell 44.0 29.7 0.5 19.8  
Coconut (DE)c C. nucifera Shell 27.2 to 50.0 14.0 to 33.5 0.5 to 2.7   [3537]
  1. DE = drupe endocarp biomass; FW = biomass fresh weight; total lignin = acid-soluble lignin + acid-insoluble lignin. aBiomass composition was analyzed to identify high-lignin feedstocks. Biomass analysis was based on the dry weight of the samples. Among the different feedstocks analyzed in this study, agricultural by-products (drupe endocarps) showed high lignin content. bData from this study. cData from the literature.