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Table 2 Changes in wet weight (WW) and total solids (TS) during ensiling

From: Ensiling of crops for biogas production: effects on methane yield and total solids determination

Row   Percentage of Maize Hemp Beets Beet tops
A Ensiling replicates, n   4 2 3 4
B TS prior to ensilinga Fresh WW 26.8 ± 0.2 31.4 ± 2.1 23.0 ± 0.2 13.2 ± 1.6
C VS prior to ensilinga Fresh WW 25.0 ± 0.1 28.4 ± 0.4 21.3 ± 0.9 10.6 ± 0.6
D Uncorrected TS after ensilingb Silage WW 24.5 ± 0.8 29.4 ± 0.4 14.2 ± 0.1 10.4 ± 0.4
E Weight after ensiling Fresh WW 99.2 ± 0.0 98.4 ± 0.1 95.6 ± 0.3 99.0 ± 0.5
F Decrease in TS based on uncorrected TSc Fresh WW 2.5 ± 0.8 2.4 ± 2.1 9.5 ± 0.2 2.9 ± 1.6
G Maximum CO2 relasedd Fresh WW 0.5 1.5 3.3 0.7
H TS after ensiling based on CO2 releasee Silage WW 26.5 30.4 20.6 12.6
I Corrected TS after ensiling according to Porter and Murrayf Silage WW 26.4 ± 0.1 30.7 ± 0.5 23.3 ± 1.1 13.1 ± 0.7
J Corrected TS after ensiling based on measurementsg Silage WW 26.5 ± 0.1 30.4 ± 0.5 23.8 ± 1.1 13.6 ± 0.7
K Decrease in TS, corrected according to Porter and Murray [5]h Fresh WW 0.6 ± 0.2 1.2 ± 2.2 0.7 ± 1.0 0.2 ± 1.8
  1. Changes in W and TS during ensiling, expressed as percentage of fresh crop or silage WW (mean ± SD). TS content was determined in duplicate. Decrease in WW and the maximum amount of CO2 released were determined for the number of ensiling replicates given in row A.
  2. aMeasured on fresh crops with ensiling solution.
  3. bThe TS content was analysed for both ensiled crops directly after opening the buckets (the value given here) and after freezing (the value used for correcting TS and VS, since VFAs, lactic acid and alcohols were determined after freezing). No significant difference was seen between the two measurements.
  4. cCalculated according to: B - D × (E/100) (letters indicate rows).
  5. dBased on the total amount of gas released and the estimated amount of CO2 in the ensiling buckets minus methane, and hydrogen and the estimated amount of nitrogen gas in the buckets at the start of ensiling.
  6. eCalculated according to: (B - G)/(E/100) (letters indicate rows).
  7. fTS values in row D plus 37.5% of the lactic acid, 100% of the ethanol and 89.2% of the acetic and butyric acid present in the silage (Table 3), according to Porter and Murray [5].
  8. gTS values in row D plus the difference between the contents of lactic acid, ethanol, acetic acid and butyric acid in the ensiled crops before and after TS determination.
  9. hCalculated according to: B - I × (E/100) (letters indicate rows).
  10. TS, total solids; VFA, volatile fatty acid; VS, volatile solids; WW, wet weight.