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Table 2 Orthogonal experimental design of optimization study for oleic acid esterification

From: Direct production of biodiesel from high-acid value Jatrophaoil with solid acid catalyst derived from lignin

  Experimental variables     
No. Catalyst loading (percentage based on weight of oleic acid) Molar ratio oleic acid:methanol Temperature (°C) Reaction time (h) Oleic acid conversion rate (%)
E1 1 1:6 60 5 71.9
E2 1 1:9 70 5 81.3
E3 1 1:12 80 5 85.6
E4 3 1:6 70 5 91.5
E5 3 1:9 90 5 92.7
E6 3 1:12 60 5 93.6
E7 5 1:6 80 5 93.4
E8 5 1:9 60 5 92.6
E9 5 1:12 70 5 95.8