(A) Comparison between the concentration of CO
) at mid fermentation point (49 h) and of the final amount of ethanol (Δ[Ethanol]
) produced by cells of the parental strain S. cerevisae BY4741 and by mutants deleted for the Anp1 , Bud31 , Hpr1 , Pho85 , Ppa1 , Rpl1B, Vrp1 and Ygl024w genes during fermentation of a growth medium optimized for VHG technology. The Δ[CO2]corr and Δ[Ethanol]corr parameters were calculated using equations 3 and 4, which are detailed in Methods. (B) The profile of CO2 production by wild-type cells or by the selected deletion mutants (all mentioned above except for Δrpl1b mutant). Those deletion mutants found to start the fermentation at the same time as wild-type cells (shown on left) were separated from those which started the fermentation later (shown on right). Error bars represent the range between independent biological duplicates.