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Table 4 Effect of the expression of genes required for tolerance to inhibitory concentrations of ethanol, acetic acid and furfural or vanillin in the fermentation of a wheat straw hydrolysate.

From: Identification of candidate genes for yeast engineering to improve bioethanol production in very high gravity and lignocellulosic biomass industrial fermentations

Strain [Ethanol] (g/L) ΔEthanol (compared to wild-type cells) [CO2] at mid-fermentation (g/L) ΔCO2 (compared to wild-type cells)
BY4741 21 ± 2 0 8 ± 1 0
Stress: Acetic acid, ethanol and furfural
Δnat3 22 ± 0 1 ± 2 8 ± 1 7 ± 11
Δppa1 21 ± 0 1 ± 0 12 ± 0 44 ± 8 **
Δprs3 20 ± 0 -5 ± 1 3 ± 1 -50 ± 9 **
Δrpb4 3 ± 0 -85 ± 2 ** 0 ± 0 -78 ± 11 **
Δvma8 7 ± 1 -63 ± 5 ** 0 ± 1 -80 ± 11 **
Stress: Acetic acid, ethanol and vanillin
Δend3 21 ± 0 -1 ± 2 5 ± 2 -33 ± 20
Δerg2 20 ± 1 -5 ± 3 2 ± 0 -256 ± 68 **
Δerg24 21 ± 0 -1 ± 0 8 ± 1 -5 ± 10
Δgcs1 22 ± 0 2 ± 1 5 ± 1 -43 ± 13 *
Δrav1 21 ± 0 -1 ± 1 4 ± 0 -43 ± 8 **
Δtps1 21 ± 0 -3 ± 1 5 ± 1 -32 18
  1. The comparison of the fermentation profile of wild-type cells and of the deletion mutants was based on the concentration of ethanol produced at the end of the fermentation and on the amount of CO2 formed at mid-fermentation point (14 h - time taken by the parental strain to reach 50% of the total CO2 produced), as described in Methods. The results shown are means of at least two independent experiments and the statistical significance of the results obtained was quantified using a t-test (n = 2). *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01.