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Table 3 Percentages of pyrolysis products from termite-chewed softwood and undigested control at 340°C.

From: Advanced biorefinery in lower termite-effect of combined pretreatment during the chewing process

  Name Molecular formula Molecular weight Retention time (min) *Control (%) Chewed softwood (%)
1 Furfural C5H4O2 96 5.666 0.37 0.07
2 2-methyl-cyclopentanone C6H10O 98 7.628 0.04 0.01
3 2-furanmethanol C5H6O2 98 12.257 0.03 NA
4 2-vinyl-9-[3-deoxy-β-d-ribofuranosyl]hypoxanthine C12H14N4O4 278 14.013 0.10 0.10
5 1-(2-hydroxy-5-methylphenyl)-ethanone C9H10O2 150 16.968 0.24 2.25
6 2-methoxy-5-(1-propenyl)-,(E)-phenol C10H12O2 164 17.917 0.20 0.23
7 Vanillin C8H8O3 152 18.866 NA 4.09
8 Vanillin lactoside C20H28O13 476 19.164 0.23 NA
9 2-methoxy-4-(1-propenyl)-(E)-phenol C10H12O2 164 19.858 1.06 4.12
10 2-methoxy-4-propyl-phenol C10H14O2 166 20.126 0.18 1.83
11 6-methoxy-3-methylbenzofuran C10H10O2 162 20.45 0.33 4.26
12 Levoglucosan C6H10O5 162 20.687 NA 2.08
13 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-propanone C10H12O3 180 21.636 NA 0.61
14 2-methoxy-α,5-dimethyl-benzeneacetaldehyde C11H14O2 178 22.153 NA 0.93
15 3-hydroxy-4-methoxy-benzaldehyde C8H8O3 152 22.732 0.20 1.27
16 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzeneacetic acid C9H10O4 182 23.866 0.30 1.18
17 4-((1E)-3-hydroxy-1-propenyl)-2-methoxyphenol C10H12O3 180 24.319 NA 0.12
18 Methoxyphenyl)-5-(3-hydroxy-1-propenyl)-7- methoxy-2,3-dihydro-2-(4-hydroxy-3-3-benzofuranmethanol C20H22O6 358 24.487 NA 0.20
19 3,3',5,5'-tetramethyl-2,2'-bifuryl C12H14O2 190 25.251 NA 0.27
20 Benzeneacetic acid, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-, methyl ester C10H12O4 196 25.333 NA 0.29
21 4-hydroxy-2-methoxycinnamaldehyde C10H10O3 178 25.436 1.24 7.14
  1. See the structures of the labeled pyrolysates in Figure 3. NA: not applicable