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Table 1 Biological conversions of crude glycerol to chemicals

From: Value-added uses for crude glycerol--a byproduct of biodiesel production

Product Pathway Product productivity Reference
1, 3-propanediol Fed-batch cultures of Klebsiella pneumoniae strain 1.7 g/L/h [6]
  Maximum 1,3-propanediol production from K. pneumonia 13.8 g/L [29]
  Optimize 1,3-propanediol production from K. pneumoniae ATCC 15380 56 g/L [30]
  Integrated bioprocess combining biodiesel production by lipase with microbial production of 1, 3-propanediol by K. pneumoniae strain 1.7 g/L/h [31]
  Clostridium butyricum strain VPI 3266 on a synthetic medium 0.60 mol/mol glycerol [32]
  C. butyricum strain F2b (process modelling) NAa [33]
  C. butyricum VPI 1718; fed-batch operation under non-sterile culture conditions 67.9 g/L [35]
  One vessel bio- and chemocatalytic process; in a biphasic system without intermediate separation of 1, 3-propanediol; C. butyricum DSM10703 134 m mol/L [36]
Citric acid Y. lipolytica strain ACA-DC 50109 (process modelling) NAa [33]
  Acetate Mutants of Y. lipolytica Wratislavia AWG7 strain; Fed-batch operation 139 g/L [39]
  Yarrowia lipolytica strain LGAM S (7)1 35 g/L [42]
  Y. lipolytica N15 71 g/L [43]
Erythritol Fed-batch cultures of Y. lipolytica Wratislavia K1 1 g/L/h [41]
Hydrogen Photofermentative conversion process; Rhodopseudomonas palustris strain 6 mol/mol glycerol [44]
  Enterobacter aerogenes strain HU-101; continuous culture; porous ceramics as a support material to fix cells 63 mmol/L/h [45]
  Optimize some media compositions of E. aerogenes ATCC 35029 0.85 mol/mol glycerol [46]
  Anaerobic treatment process; crude glycerol was a co-substrate 2.9 mmol/g glycerol [49]
Poly (hydroxyalkanoates) (PHAs) Pseudomonas oleovorans NRRL B-14682 and P. corrugata 388 grew and synthesized PHB and mcl-PHA, respectively NAa [52]
  Producing PHB; Paracoccus denitrificans and Cupriavidus necator JMP 134 strains 48% [53]
  Producing PHB; Cupriavidus necator strain DSM 545 50% [54]
  Producing PHB; Zobellella denitrificans MW1; fed-batch cultivation 66.9% ± 7.6% [55]
  Producing PHB; Mixed microbial consortia (MMC) > 50% [56]
  Pseudomonas oleovorans NRRL B-14682; batch culture 30% [57]
Phytase High cell density fermentations, recombinant Pichia pastoris 1125 U/mL [70]
Lipase Staphylococcus caseolyticus EX17 127.3 U/L [75]
Succinic acid Basfia succiniciproducens DD1; continuous cultivation process 1.02 g/g glycerol [68]
Docosahexaenoic acid-rich algae Fermentation of the alga, Schizochytrium limacinum strain; continuous culture 0.52 g/L-day [61]
Eicosapentaenoic acid Fungus Pythium irregulare 90 mg/L [60]
Lipid Schizochytrium limacinum SR21; batch culture 73.3% [62]
  Cryptococcus curvatus; two-stage fed-batch process 52% [63]
  Oleaginous red yeast Rhodotorula glutinis TISTR 5159; fed-batch fermentation 60.7% [65]
  Chlorella protothecoides 3 g/L per day [66]
  Fungi 42.6% [67]
Recombinant human erythropoietin etc. Pichia pastoris medium 31 mg/L [72]
Ethanol Nonpathogenic Kluyvera cryocrescens S26; batch fermentation 27 g/L [47]
  Klebsiella pneumoniae mutant strain (GEM167) 21.5 g/L [48]
Methane Anaerobic digestion 0.306 m3/kg glycerol [51]
Butanol Clostridium pasteurianum (ATCC®6013™) 0.30 g/g glycerol [71]
Fungal protein Rhizopus microsporus var. oligosporus 0.83 ± 0.02 g/g glycerol [77]
  1. a represents data are not available