Different metabolic pathways for metabolism of glycerol. Production of 1,3-PDO by Enterobacteriaceae family members is shown in red. DHA production by G. oxydans is shown in blue. Ethanol and formate production pathways in the fermentative utilization of glycerol by E. coli are shown in gray. Proposed pathway for the conversion of glycerol to glyceric acid is shown in green. Dashed lines indicate multiple steps or unknown enzyme(s) (GA pathway). Main products are highlighted in color- filled boxes. Abbreviations: GLY, glycerol; GLY-Dhd, GLY dehydrogenase; DHA, dihydroxyacetone; DHA-Kin, DHA kinase; DHAP, DHA phosphate; PYR, pyruvate; GLY-Dht, GLY dehydratase; 3HPA, 3-hydroxyapropionaldehyde; 1,3-PDO-Dhd, 1,3-PDO dehydrogenase; GLY-DhdE, membrane-bound GLY-Dhd; GLY-Kin, GLY kinase, G3P, glycerol 3-phosphate, G3P-Dhd, G3P dehydrogenase; PPP, pentose phosphate pathway; PFL, pyruvate formate-lyase; mAdh: membrane-bound alcohol dehydrogenase.