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Table 1 Chemicals produced at high yield and/or high concentration by microbial fermentation of glycerol

From: Biodiesel biorefinery: opportunities and challenges for microbial production of fuels and chemicals from glycerol waste

Product Organism Fermentation mode Oxygen availability Yield (product/glycerol) Productivity Product concentration Ref.
1,3-Propanediol K. pneumoniae DSM 2026 Fed-batch Microaerobic 0.52 mol/mol 1.57 g/L/h 59.50 g/L [13]
  K. pneumoniae LDH 526 Fed-batch Aerobic 0.52 mol/mol 2.13 g/L/h 102.1 g/L [17]
  C. butyricum F2b Batch Anaerobic 0.53 g/g 1.05 g/L/ha 47.1 g/L [6]
  E. coli K12 Fed-batch Anaerobic 90.2%b 2.61 g/L/h 104.4 g/L [16]
  K. pneumoniae Fed-batch 1 m3 Anaerobic 61 mol/mol 2.2 g/L/h 75 g/L [18]
2,3-Butanediol K. pneumoniae G31 Fed-batch Microaerobic 0.36 mol/mol 0.18 g/L/h 49.2 g/L [19]
  K. pneumoniae G31 Fed-batch Aerobic 0.39 g/g 0.47 g/L/h 70.0 g/L [20]
Ethanol E. coli SY 4 Batch Microaerobic 85%b 0.15 g/L/h 7.8 g/L [21]
Butanol C. pasteurianum Batch Anaerobic 0.36 g/g n.d 1.8 g/La [22]
Dihydroxyacetone G. oxydans ZJB09112 Fed-batch Aerobic 88.7%b n.d 161.9 g/L [23]
Glyceric acid G. frateurii NBRC103465 Fed-batch Aerobic 0.76 g/g 0.81 g/L/ha 136.5 g/Lc [24]
  A. tropicalis NBRC16470 Fed-batch Aerobic 0.46 g/g 0.71 g/L/ha 101.8 g/Ld [24]
Lactic acid E. coli AC-521 Fed-batch Aerobic 0.9 mol/mol 0.49 g/g/ha 85.8 g/L [25]
  E. coli LA02Δdld Batch Microaerobic 0.83 g/g 1.25 g/g//h 32 g/L [26]
Succinic acid engineered E. coli Batch Microaerobic 0.69 g/g ~ 4 g/g/h 14 g/L [27]
  Y. lipolytica Y-3314 Batch Oxygen limited 0.45 g/g d n.d 45 g/L [28]
Citric acid Y. lipolytica Repeated batch Aerobic 0.77 g/g 0.85 g/L/h 124.2 g/L [29]
Oxalic acid A. niger Batch Aerobic 0.62 g/g n.d 21 g/L [30]
Mannitol C. magnoliae Batch Aerobic 0.51 g/g 0.53 g/L/ha 51 g/L [31]
Erythritol Y. lipolytica Wratislavia K1 Fed-batch Aerobic 0.56 g/g 1.0 g/L/h 170 g/L [32]
Arabitol D. hansenii SBP1 Batch Aerobic 0.50 g/g 0.12 g/L/ha 14 g/La [33]
PHB E. coli Arc2 Fed-batch Microaerobic   0.18 g/L/h 10.81 g/L [34]
  Z. denitrificans MW1 Fed-batch Aerobic 0.25 g/g 1.09 g/L/h 54.3 g/L [35]
  1. a calculated from the data presented; b Percentage of theorethycal maximum; c 72% D-GA enantiomeric excess (ee); d 99% D-GA enantiomeric excess (ee); n.d. not determined.