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Table 3 Mass balance of bulk biomass and of biomass components from three treatments with different ILs

From: Sugarcane bagasse pretreatment using three imidazolium-based ionic liquids; mass balances and enzyme kinetics

Dry mass (mg) Bulk biomass Ash Lignin (AIL + ASL) Glucan Xylan Arabinan Acetyl HMF Furfural
[C4mim]Cl          
Untreated 1461 46 383 656 324 22 46 n/a n/a
SF1 1318 47 344 627 270 14 39 n/a n/a
LF1 92 n/d 0.4* 16 60 10 7 0.6 1.2
LF1 oligo     13 58 2 6   
Total mass recovered 1411 47 344 636 317 24 46   
[C2mim]Cl          
Untreated 1346 42 353 605 299 20 42 n/a n/a
SF1 643 39 185 343 71 4 11 n/a n/a
LF1 446 n/d 3* 188 214 14 28 1.2 1.4
LF1 oligo     175 204 3 27   
Total mass recovered 1089 39 188 516 267 20 39   
[C2mim]OAc          
Untreated 699 22 183 314 155 10 22 n/a n/a
SF1 463 26 73 316 62 7 7 n/a n/a
LF1 88 n/d 17* 1 85 5 n/d 1.1 1.8
LF1 oligo     bdl 83 5 n/d   
Total mass recovered 551 26 90 316 125 12 7   
  1. Masses (average of duplicates).
  2. Masses expressed on dry basis. Glucan is considered equal to cellulose, HMF (Hydroxymethyl furfural) is expressed as glucan equivalents and furfural as xylan equivalents, SF1: solid fraction 1, recovered from the first water addition (water:IL mass ratio = 0.5), LF1: liquid fraction 1, recovered from the first water addition (water:IL mass ratio = 0.5), LF1 oligo: oligosaccharides in LF1, n/d: not determined, n/a: not applicable, bdl: barely detectable.
  3. The estimates of standard deviation (absolute, based on duplicate IL pretreatments, 3 df) of the recovery (and analysis) of these components (as%mass starting component) in SF1 are 2% for glucan, 2% for xylan, 3% for arabinan, 1% for acetyl and 2% for lignin (acid soluble + acid insoluble). In LF1, these estimates of standard deviation for the oligosaccharides are 1% for glucan, 2% for xylan, 18% for arabinan and 3% for acetyl and for the monosaccharides they are 0.2% for glucan, 0.2% for xylan, 15% for arabinan and 0.7% for acetyl. The unacceptably high standard deviation for arabinan is attributed to its very low concentrations in the liquid fractions. *This mass does not represent all the lignin mass in the LF1 but only the recoverable lignin mass in the sum of SF2 and SF3 precipitates.