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Figure 5 | Biotechnology for Biofuels

Figure 5

From: Transcriptomic analysis of the oleaginous microalga Neochloris oleoabundans reveals metabolic insights into triacylglyceride accumulation

Figure 5

Differential expression of genes involved in (A) the fatty acid biosynthesis; (B) triacylglycerol biosynthesis; (C) β-oxidation; and (D) starch biosynthesis. Pathway were reconstructed based on the de novo assembly and quantitative annotation of the N. oleoabundans transcriptome. (A) Enzymes include: ACC, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (EC: 6.4.1.2); MAT, malonyl-CoA ACP transacylase (EC: 2.3.1.39); KAS, beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase (KAS I, EC: 2.3.1.41; KASII, EC: 2.3.1.179; KAS III, EC: 2.3.1.180); KAR, beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase (EC: 1.1.1.100); HAD, beta-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydrase (EC: 4.2.1.-); EAR, enoyl-ACP reductase (EC: 1.3.1.9); AAD, acyl-ACP desaturase (EC: 1.14.19.2); OAH, oleoyl-ACP hydrolase (EC: 3.1.2.14); FatA, Acyl-ACP thioesterase A (EC: 3.1.2.-); Δ12D, Δ126)-desaturase (EC: 1.4.19.6); Δ15D, Δ153)-desaturase (EC: 1.4.19.-); (B) Enzymes include: GK, glycerol kinase (EC: 2.7.1.30); GPAT, glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase (EC: 2.3.1.15); AGPAT, 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase (EC:2.3.1.51); PP, phosphatidate phosphatase (EC: 3.1.3.4); DGAT, diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (EC: 2.3.1.20); and PDAT, phopholipid:diacyglycerol acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.158); (C) Enzymes include: ACS, acyl-CoA synthetase (EC: 6.2.1.3); ACOX1, acyl-CoA oxidase (EC: 1.3.3.6); ECH, enoly-CoA hydratase (EC: 4.2.1.17); HADH, 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (EC: 1.1.1.35); ACAT, acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase (EC: 2.3.1.16, 2.3.1.9); (D) Enzymes include: PGM, phosphoglucomutase (EC: 5.4.2.2); AGPase, ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (EC: 2.7.7.27); SS, starch synthase (EC: 2.4.1.21); BE, α-1,4-glucan branching enzyme (EC: 2.4.1.18); and HXK, hexokinase (2.7.1.1). Starch catabolism enzymes include: α-AMY, α-amylase (EC: 3.2.1.1); O1,6G, oligo-1,6-glucosidase (EC: 3.2.1.10); β-AMY, β-amylase (EC: 3.2.1.2); and SPase, starch phosphorylase (EC: 2.4.1.1). Ethanol fermentation via pyruvate enzymes include: PDC, pyruvate decarboxylase (EC: 4.1.1.1); and ADH, alcohol dehydrogenase (EC: 1.1.1.1). Enzymes aceE, pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component (EC 1.2.4.1); aceF, pyruvate dehydrogenase E2 component (EC: 2.3.1.12); and pdhD, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (EC 1.8.1.4), transforms pyruvate into acetyl-CoA. Key enzymes are shown with an asterisk (*) next to the enzyme abbreviations, and dashed arrows denote reaction(s) for which the enzymes are not shown. All presented fold changes are statistically significant, q value < 0.05.

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