Saccharification analysis. Hot water pretreatment of dry stem material was followed by 24 h of saccharification with the Cellic CTec2 (Novozymes) enzyme mixture. (A) Release of reducing sugar was determined by the dinitrosalicylic acid assay. All transformants showed increases in saccharification yield compared to the wild type. Values show average ± SD (n=7 for wild type, irx9 mutant and pVND7:IRX9 #5, both pVND6:IRX9 lines and pVND7:IRX9 #1 n=3, and all remaining lines n=4). (B) Released sugars from selected lines were analyzed by HPAEC. Values show average ± SE (n = 3 for wild type and irx9, and n=8 for pVND7:IRX9 and pVND7:IRX7 lines). Fucose, rhamnose, arabinose and galactose were present in trace amounts. * indicates a significant difference from the wild type (t-test, p < 0.05).