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Table 2 Energetic (ATP and NAD(P)H) requirements for the synthesis of TAG and storage carbohydrate per unit carbon

From: Comparative energetics and kinetics of autotrophic lipid and starch metabolism in chlorophytic microalgae: implications for biomass and biofuel production

  ATP/NAD(P)H
TAG synthesis partial reactions:  
3 CO2 → 3-phosphoglyceraldehyde→ acetylCoA 12 ATP, 4 NAD(P)H + CO2
AcetylCoA(n-1used) mediated fatty acid elongation (e.g., C16:0) 7 ATP + 14 NADH
Fatty acid desaturation 1 NADH equivalent/bond desaturated
3 CO2 → Glycerol 9 ATP + 7 NAD(P)H
TAG (C 55 H 98 O 6 ) synthesis summary:  
26 acetyl CoA = 312 ATP, 104 NAD(P)H
Fatty acid elongation C16:0 + 2 C18:0 = 23 ATP, 46 NAD(P)H
4 desaturations 4 NAD(P)H equivalents
1 glycerol 9 ATP, 7 NAD(P)H
Total 344 ATP, 160 NAD(P)H
Per carbon 6.25 ATP, 2.93 NAD(P)H
Starch /glycogen synthesis partial reactions:  
6 CO2 → 2 3-phosphoglyceraldehyde → glucose 24 ATP, 12 NAD(P)H
Glucose → storage carbohydrate 1 ATP/glucose
Starch synthesis (55 units, 330 C) summary:  
Total for 55 glucose 1375 ATP, 660 NAD(P)H
Per Carbon 4.16 ATP, 2 NAD(P)H