Schematic representation of LCCs-mediated Cel adsorption between lignin and cellulose. (A) Greater electrostatic repulsion between Cel and lignin is derived from the formation of LCCs that possess greater negative potential. (B) Binding of Cel to lignin in the case of enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic substrate without LS application. (C) Reduced Cel binding to lignin due to the LS application, which promotes the selectivity of enzymatic catalysis. Cel, cellulase; LCC, lignosulfonate-cellulase complex; LS, lignosulfonate.