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Table 1 Techniques for detoxification of lignocellulose hydrolysates and slurries

From: Bioconversion of lignocellulose: inhibitors and detoxification

Technique Procedure Examplea
Chemical additives Alkali [such as Ca(OH)2, NaOH, NH4OH] [76, 77]
Reducing agents [such as dithionite, dithiothreitol, sulfite] [39]
Enzymatic treatment Laccase [36, 45]
Peroxidase [36]
Heating and vaporization Evaporation [33]
Heat treatment [78]
Liquid-liquid extraction Ethyl acetate [24, 75]
Supercritical fluid extraction [such as supercritical CO2] [34]
Trialkylamine [79]
Liquid–solid extraction Activated carbon [80]
Ion exchange [38, 81]
Lignin [82]
Microbial treatment Coniochaeta ligniaria [83, 84]
  Trichoderma reesei [33, 85]
  Ureibacillus thermosphaericus [86]
  1. aThe table includes one or two examples of each procedure (references are not exhaustive). Dilution, washing of solid fractions, and techniques based on the fermenting microbe are not included.