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Table 2 Effects of alkaline treatment on monosaccharides and ethanol production

From: Bioconversion of lignocellulose: inhibitors and detoxification

System studied Detoxification conditions Improvement in fermentability Effect on inhibitors and sugar Reference
Spruce hydrolysate. S. cerevisiae Ca(OH)2 pH 10, 1 h BEYa= 98% Furan aldehydes, decrease: ~21% [33]
   BEYa (untreatedb)= 71% Phenols, decrease: ~19%  
   BEYa (referencec)= 100% Sugar, decrease: ~4%d  
  NaOH pH 10, 1 h BEYa= 94% Furan aldehydes, decrease: ~18%  
   BEYa (untreatedb)= 71% Phenols, decrease: ~18%  
   BEYa (referencec)= 100% Sugar, decrease: ~4%d  
Bagasse hydrolysate. E. coli Ca(OH)2 pH 9, 60°C, 0.5 h Q (24 h)e: ~1.3 g/Lh Furan aldehydes, decrease: ~69% [97]
   No reference fermentation Phenols, decrease: ~35%  
    Sugar, decrease: ~15%f  
  Ca(OH)2 pH 10, 60°C, 0.5 h Q(24 h)e: ~ 1.0 g/Lh Sugar, decrease: ~33%f  
   No reference fermentation   
Spruce hydrolysate. S. cerevisiae Ca(OH)2 pH 12, 60°C, 170 h Q(24 h)e: ~ 0.3 g/Lh Furan aldehydes, decrease: ~100% [100]
   No reference fermentation Phenols, increase: ~150%  
    Sugar, decrease: ~68%g  
  Ca(OH)2 pH 11, 25°C, 20 h Q(24 h)e: ~ 0 g/Lh Furan aldehydes, decrease: ~77%  
   Q(48 h)e: ~ 0.3 g/Lh Phenols, decrease: ~8%  
   No reference fermentation Sugar, decrease: <5%g  
Bagasse hydrolysate. S. cerevisiae Ca(OH)2 pH 10, 1 h BEYa= 92% Furan aldehydes, decrease: >25% [43]
   BEYa (untreatedb)= 68% Phenols, decrease: ~17%  
   BEYa (referencec)= 100% Sugar, decrease: ~1%f  
Spruce hydrolysate. S. cerevisiae Ca(OH)2 pH 11, 30°C, 3 h BEYa= 120% Furan aldehydes, decrease: ~59% [49]
   BEYa (untreatedb)= 5% Phenols, decrease: ~22%  
   BEYa (referencec)= 100% Sugar, decrease: ~14%h  
Spruce hydrolysate. S. cerevisiae NH4OH pH 10, 22°C, 3 h BEYa =110% Not determined [76]
   BEYa (untreatedb)= 10%   
   BEYa (referencec)= 100%   
Spruce hydrolysate. S. cerevisiae NaOH pH 9, 55°C, 3 h BEYa = 111% Furan aldehydes, decrease: ~33% [77]
   BEYa (untreatedb) = 6% Phenols, decrease: ~12%  
   BEYa (referencec) = 100% Sugar, decrease: ~9%d  
  NH4OH pH 9, 55°C, 3 h BEYa =120% Furan aldehydes, decrease: ~33%  
   BEYa (untreatedb) = 7% Phenols, decrease: ~13%  
   BEYa (referencec) = 100% Sugar, decrease: ~7%d  
Corn stover hydrolysate. Z. mobilis Ca(OH)2 pH 9, 50°C, 0.5 h No reference fermentation. OEYi = 62% Sugar, decrease: ~7%j [101]
  Ca(OH)2 pH 10, 50°C, 0.5 h No reference fermentation. OEYi = 70%. Sugar, decrease: ~13%j  
  Ca(OH)2 pH 11, 50°C, 0.5 h No reference fermentation. OEYi = 59% Sugar, decrease: ~29%j  
  1. a Balanced ethanol yield given in percent of a reference fermentation of a sugar solution. b Untreated hydrolysate. c Reference sugar solution. d Glucose, xylose, arabinose, galactose mannose, and cellobiose. e Ethanol productivity. f Glucose, xylose, arabinose, galactose, and mannose. g Glucose, xylose, galactose, and mannose. h Glucose and mannose. i Overall ethanol yield, yield calculated on sugars present prior to detoxification, given in percent of the theoretical yield. j Glucose, xylose, and arabinose.