Kinetics of Avicel (a) and pretreated cellulose-enriched wheat straw (b) hydrolysis by designer-cellulosome complexes and free enzymes. The graphs show degradation by scaffoldin-set 21 with the following modular organization cTAB: long-linker scaffoldin-based designer-cellulosome (red), the short linker-based designer cellulosomes (blue), and the designer cellulosomes based on the scaffoldin without intermodular linkers (green). Controls include degradation by a designer cellulosome containing a scaffoldin that lacks a carbohydrate binding module (CBM) (gray) and degradation by the free enzymes (orange). Enzymatic activity was defined by release of reducing sugars (mM) as determined by a glucose standard curve. All reactions were carried out in triplicate. Standard deviations from three separate experiments are indicated.