Biological saccharification and ethanol fermentation profiles using alkali-pretreated rice straw. (A) Saccharification and (B) fermentation. The units are given in mM glucose and xylose equivalents. Initially, based on an assumed monomer mass of 162 g/mol of glucan and 132 g/mol of xylan, 617 mM glucose and 46 mM xylan equivalents were present. Error bars represent ± SD (n = 3).