Surrogate CENTURY parameters’ impact on domestic ethanol LUC GHG emissions for (a) conventionally-tilled corn (b) switchgrass and miscanthus. Legend: Solid and hollow shapes indicated surrogate CENTURY modelling with default and calibrated soil cultivation effect coefficients, respectively. Shapes with solid and dashed outlines represent surrogate CENTURY runs with constant and increasing yields, respectively. Diamond markers represent switchgrass results; square markers represent miscanthus results. All results except those indicated include erosion effects. In all cases, HWP sequesters 42% of aboveground live and dead tree carbon and the FPF is applied.