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Table 3 Experiments design of succinic acid fermentation with AP-bio-oil and steam exploded corn stover showing the maximum succinic acid concentrations (g/L)

From: Bio-oil based biorefinery strategy for the production of succinic acid

AP-bio-oil conc % Combination 1 + FC + glucose Combination 2 -FC + glucose Combination 3 -FC + CS
0 52.0 0 10.3
2.5 - 0 10.7
5 - 0 11.2
12.5 50.9 0 11.5
25 47.2 0 9.8
50 23.3 0 8.0
100 6.4 0 -
  1. FC = Fermentation components, CS = Steam exploded corn stover.
  2. “-”means experiments in this combination wasn’t conducted.