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Table 2 The comparison of extrusion methods

From: Alkaline twin-screw extrusion pretreatment for fermentable sugar production

References Feedstock/size Pretreatment methods Optimum conditions Sugar yields (%)
     Glucose Xylose Total
Kadam KL, Chin CY and Brown LW[16] Corn stover/through 1/2” screen A pilot-scale twin-screw extruder; autohydrolysis followed by NaOH treatment Autohydrolysis at 210°C followed by NaOH (0.06 g/g biomass) at 220°C, 6 liquid/1 biomass, extruder speed of 28 rpm 80a 60 -
Karunanithy C and Muthukumarappan K[15] Corn stover/4 mm Single screw extruder; no chemical applied 125°C, extruder speed of 75 rpm, 21% moisture content 75 49 61
Karunanithy C and Muthukumarappan K[29] Prairie cord grass/8 mm Alkali soaking followed by single screw extrusion 114°C, extruder speed of 122 rpm, 1.7% NaOH concentration, 7 liquid/1 biomass 86.8 84.5 82.0
Karunanithy C and Muthukumarappan K[30] Switchgrass/6 mm Alkali soaking followed by single screw extrusion 180°C, extruder speed of 118 rpm,2% NaOH concentration, 7 liquid/1 biomass 90.5 81.5 88.0
Karunanithy C and Muthukumarappan K[26] Swithgrass/8 mm Single screw extrusion; no chemical applied 176°C, extruder speed of 155 rpm, moisture content 20% 41.4 62.2 47.4
Zhang S, Keshwani DR, Xu Y and Hanna MA[22] Corn stover/2 mm Alkali soakage followed by twin screw extrusion 140°C, screw speed of 80 rpm, NaOH loading of 0.04 g/g biomass, 3.67 g/min biomass 86.8 50.5 -
Zhang S, Xu Y and Hanna MA[27] Corn stover/2 mm Twin-screw extruder; no chemical applied 140°C, screw speed of 80 rpm, 27.5% moisture content, 3.67 g/min biomass 49 25 40
Karunanithy C, Muthukumarappan K and Gibbons WR[28] Pine wood/8 mm Single screw extruder; no chemical applied 180°C, screw speed of 150 rpm, 25% moisture content 65.8 65.6 66.1
Choi CH and Oh KK[31] Rape straw/1.40-2.36 mm Twin screw extrusion with sulfuric acid 165°C, screw speed of 19.7 rpm, 3.5% sulfuric acid concentration, 6.9 mL/min liquid,0.5 g/min biomass 70.9b - -
ATSE method (present work) Corn stover/2-5 cm Twin screw extrusion with NaOH solution 99°C, screw speed of 325 rpm, NaOH loading of 0.06 g/g biomass, 2 liquid/1 biomass, 200 kg/h biomass 82 69 78
  1. a sugar yield based on the carbohydrate in the raw material; b glucan digestibility based on the carbohydrate in the pretreated solid. Some details and data of the experiment were not listed in the literatures and not listed equally in this table.