Cumulative total yield of ethanol on glucose during fermentation of defined media. (A) Suspended and (B) encapsulated xylose-fermenting yeast. The total ethanol yield was calculated from the glucose consumption and total ethanol production from both xylose and glucose from the beginning of the batch to each sample point. The theoretically highest possible ethanol yield on glucose only (0.51 g/g) is indicated by the black line. Yields higher than this level indicate ethanol production from xylose. Average values ± 1 standard deviation, n = 3.