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Table 3 Seasonal changes in growth rates of duckweed, nutrients removals and chlorophyll concentration in synthetic wastewater

From: Dual application of duckweed and azolla plants for wastewater treatment and renewable fuels and petrochemicals production

Months Days from start Growth density, g dw/m2 Growth rate, g dw/m2-day NH4-N initial, mg/l NH4-N final, mg/l NH4-N uptake rate, mg/l-day PO4-P initial, mg/l PO4-P final, mg/L PO4-P uptake rate, mg/l-day N/P uptake Chl A + B, μg/ml
January 10 NA NA 250.0 166.1 ± 18 8.4 ± 4 30.0 20.7 ± 6 0.93 ± 0.14 9 45.7 ± 12
15 NA NA   46.2 ± 8 13.5 ± 6   8.9 ± 4 1.4 ± 0.9 9.6 19.3 ± 8
20 42.5 ± 10 2.1 ± 0.9   0.0 12.5 ± 7   3.9 ± 2 1.3 ± 0.7 9.5 12.3 ± 6
April 10 NA NA 250.0 176.7 ± 29 7.3 ± 3 30.0 20.6 ± 8 0.9 ± 0.4 7.8 15.8 ± 5
15 NA NA   77.1 ± 11 11.5 ± 3   12.6 ± 6 1.20 ± 0.9 9.9 7.5 ± 3
20 71.1 ± 16 3.5 ± 0.9   37.1 ± 7 10.6 ± 4   10.6 ± 3.0 0.9 ± 0.4 10.9 2.5 ± 1.2
June 10 NA NA 250.0 221.1 ± 30 2.8 ± 2 30.0 26.9 ± 11 0.31 ± 0.2 9.3 5.8 ± 2
15 NA NA   128.1 ± 28 8.1 ± 4   17.1 ± 8 0.86 ± 0.2 9.4 4.9 ± 2
20 45.8 ± 9 2.3 ± 0.7   98.1 ± 11 7.5 ± 3   13.1 ± 6 0.845 ± 0.2 8.9 2.9 ± 1
  1. N, nitrogen; P, phosphorus; NA (not analyzed).