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Table 4 Seasonal changes in growth rates of azolla, nutrient removals and chlorophyll concentration in synthetic wastewater

From: Dual application of duckweed and azolla plants for wastewater treatment and renewable fuels and petrochemicals production

Months Days from start Growth density, g dw/m2 Growth rate, g dw/m2-day NH4-N initial, mg/l NH4-N final, mg/l NH4-N uptake rate, mg/l-day PO4-P initial, mg/l PO4-P final, mg/L PO4-P uptake rate, mg/l-day N/P uptake Chl A + B, μg/ml
January 10 NA NA 40.0 16 ± 6 2.4 ± 0.8 20.0 13.2 ± 4 0.68 ± 0.4 3.5 33.7 ± 10
15 NA NA   6.1 ± 3 2.3 ± 0.7   4.1 ± 2 1.06 ± 0.5 2.1 12.3 ± 8
20 58.2 ± 8 2.9 ± 0.9   0.0 2.0 ± 0.9   0.0 1.0 ± 0.6 2 2.3 ± 0.5
April 10 NA NA 40.0 18.7 ± 8 2.1 ± 1.0 20.0 13.6 ± 4 0.64 ± 0.3 3.3 12.8 ± 4.8
15 NA NA   4.5 ± 2 2.4 ± 0.7   8.5 ± 1 0.76 ± 0.3 3.1 0.5 ± 0.2
20 88.5 ± 18 4.4 ± 0.7   2.5 ± 1.1 1.9 ± 0.9   0.0 1.0 ± 0.6 1.9 0.0
June 10 NA NA 40.0 23.1 ± 6 1.7 ± 1.0 20.0 16.9 ± 5 0.31 ± 0.1 5.5 8.8 ± 1.8
15 NA NA   10.1 ± 4 2.0 ± 1.1   10.1 ± 5 0.7 ± 0.2 3 3.9 ± 1.2
20 67.2 ± 6 3.3 ± 0.9   8.1 ± 3 1.5 ± 0.8   6.1 ± 3 0.7 ± 0.3 2.3 2.7 ± 1.2
  1. N, nitrogen; P, phosphorus; NA (not analyzed).