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Table 5 Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis of bio-oil products of duckweed, azolla and microalgae pyrolysis

From: Dual application of duckweed and azolla plants for wastewater treatment and renewable fuels and petrochemicals production

Retention time, minutes Duckweed Azolla (green) Azolla (red) Microalgae
4.3    Toluene Toluene
4.9    3-Methyl furan and/or 3-Cyclopenten-1,2 diol  
5.2    Tetrahydro-4H-pyran-4-ol  
5.5    4-Cyclohexene-1,2-diol  
5.58     2-Methyl-1H-Pyrrole
5.72   2,4,5-Trimethyl 1H-imidazole   
5.8    1,2-Diemthyl-2-pyrroline  
6.18     Piperidine
6.33   Phenol Phenol Phenol
6.72 2,3-Dimethyl-1H-Pyrrole    2,3-Dimethyl-1H-Pyrrole
6.83     4-Ethyl-2-methyl-1H- pyrrole
7.38 2-Methyl phenol 2-Methyl phenol 2-Methyl phenol  
7.9 3-Methyl phenol 3-Methyl phenol 3-Methyl phenol  
8.3     3-Ethyl-2,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrole
8.38     3-Ethyl-2,4-dimethyl-1H-pyrrole
8.77 4-Methyl phenol    
9.28    Dodecane  
9.33     2-Isopropylpyrazine
9.43     3-Ethyl-2,4,5-Trimethyl-1H-Pyrrole
9.67 4-Ethyl phenol    
10.13 2-Ethyl phenol    
10.67   Tridecane Tridecane  
10.83     Indole
11.77 Indolizine Indolizine Indolizine  
11.98   Tetradecane Tetradecane Tetradecane
12.83 3-Methyl Indolizine    3-Methyl Indolizine
13.23   Pentadecane Pentadecane Pentadecane
13.37 4-Methyl 1H-indole    
14.43   Hexadecane Hexadecane Hexadecane
15.28     6,9-Heptadecadiene
15.37     1,15-Pentadecanediol
15.38     8-Heptadecane
15.57   Heptadecane Heptadecane Heptadecane
15.93 3,7,11,15-Tetramethyl-2-hexadecene 3,7,11,15-Tetramethyl-2-hexadecene 3,7,11,15-Tetramethyl-2-hexadecene 3,7,11,15-Tetramethyl-2-hexadecene
16.65   Octadecane Octadecane  
17.1 to 17.55 Isomers of 3,7,11,15-Tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol (phytol) Various isomers of 3,7,11,15-Tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol (phytol) Various isomers of 3,7,11,15-Tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol (phytol) Various isomers of 3,7,11,15-Tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol (phytol)
17.8     Nonadecane
18.25   Palmitoleic acid Palmitoleic acid  
18.65   Eicosane (C20)   
19.58   Heneicosane (C21)   
19.75     Linolenic acid