CSLM micrographs show cellular-scale evidence of biomass deconstruction. (a) Control, (b) ZC, (c) SG, and (d) HS. The ZC samples have generally thicker cell walls with only limited evidence of delamination and disruptions (b). The SG samples display extensive dislocation of individual cells indicating that the middle lamella layers have been removed and the cells have been forced apart (c, arrow). The HS reactor samples also exhibit extensive dislocation, but in addition display cell wall delamination and fragmentation. Bar = 50 μm. CSLM, confocal scanning laser microscopy; HS, horizontal screw; SG, steam gun; ZC, ZipperClave®.