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Table 1 Pretreatment conditions, corresponding solids compositions, and component removals for pretreatment of corn stover by dilute acid (DA), ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX™), and ionic liquid (IL)

From: Comparison of enzymatic reactivity of corn stover solids prepared by dilute acid, AFEX™, and ionic liquid pretreatments

  Pretreatment
  None DA AFEX IL
Pretreatment conditions     
Chemicals NA Dilute sulfuric acid Anhydrous ammonia 1-ethyl‒3‒methyl‒imidazoliumacetate
Loadings NA 0.5% wt 1:1 (Biomass: NH3) 1:9 (Biomass: IL)
L/S ratio NA 9:1 1:1 9:1
Temperature (°C) NA 160 140 140
Time (min) NA 20 15 180
Component (%)     
Glucan 33.4 59.1 33.5 46.9
Xylan 24.9 6.5 24.8 29.8
Arabinan 3.7 3.6 3.3 0.3
Lignin (AIL) 17.2 32.2 12.2 2.7
Component removal (%)*     
Solid   51.0 0 36.0
Xylan - 87.0 0.4 23.4
Lignin - 8.2 2.8 89.9
  1. *Solid removal (%) = 100% × (1- Total solid after pretreatment (g)/Total solid before pretreatment (g)).
  2. Xylan removal (%) = 1- (%Xylan in pretreated solids / % Xylan in raw biomass) × Solid yield.
  3. Lignin removal (%) = 1- (%Lignin in pretreated solids / % Lignin in raw biomass) × Solid yield.
  4. L/S - liquid to solid.