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Table 1 Pretreatment conditions used to pretreat biomass using different methods

From: A comparative study of ethanol production using dilute acid, ionic liquid and AFEX™ pretreated corn stover

Method Pretreatment Post-wash
Temperature (°C) Residence time (minutes) Catalyst type Catalyst loading (kg)a Catalyst recyclable? Water loading (kg)b Post-wash water use (kg)b Water temperature (°C)
DA 160 20 Sulfuric acid 4.5 No 895.5 1,000 Room temperature
IL 140 180 IL [C2mim][OAc] 900 Yes N/R 10,000 Room temperature
AFEX 140 15 Anhydrous ammonia 100 Yes 60 N/R -
  1. aCatalyst loading: kg/100 kg dry biomass; bwater use: L/100 kg dry biomass. AFEX, ammonia fiber expansion; [C2mim][OAc], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate; DA, dilute acid; IL, ionic liquid; N/R, not required.