RNAi-assisted genome evolution (RAGE) screen and isolation of furfural resistant S. cerevisiae strains. (A) Schematic representation of RAGE . (B) Isolation of furfural tolerant strains. Ten-fold dilutions of the indicated strains were spotted on synthetic complete (SC) plates containing 0 or 0.8 g/L furfural and incubated at 30°C for 2 and 5 days, respectively. BAD-P is the parent wild-type strain. Strains SIZ1-kd and GCN4-kd are furfural resistant strains isolated from the RAGE screen. (C) Maximum specific growth rates of furfural tolerant strains in the presence of 0.8 g/L furfural. Error bars represent SD (n = 3).