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Table 4 Sugars and organic acids in the HTT liquid fraction

From: Ensiling and hydrothermal pretreatment of grass: consequences for enzymatic biomass conversion and total monosaccharide yields

Biomass Grass Grass silage
HTT temperature 170 180 190 170 180 190
  (w/w)% of DM (w/w)% of DM
Glucose 9.7a 10.5a 10.1a 1.8c 2.4b 2.3b
Xylose 3.8f 8.4d 17.2a 5.8e 12.4c 14.9b
Galactose 1.4d 2.1b 2.6a 1.4d 2.0b 1.7c
Arabinose 2.1d 3.1b 3.8a 2.5c 2.9b 2.4c
Fructose 3.0a 2.9a 2.0b 0.5c 0.6c 0.3d
Total sugars 20.0 27.1 35.7 12.1 20.3 21.7
Lactic acid 0.10b 0.39b 0.22b 11.51a 11.97a 11.27a
Formic acid 0.83d 0.98c 1.25b 2.31a 2.35a 2.51a
Acetic acid 1.24d 1.81c 2.67b 2.90b 3.28ab 3.69a
Malic acid 3.15c 3.64b 4.16a 0.00d 0.00d 0.00d
Propionic acid 0.21d 0.27c 0.40a 0.33b 0.38a 0.40a
Total organic acids 5.5 7.1 8.7 17.1 18.0 17.9
Solubilized DM 24.7 30.4 38.4 32.5 38.5 41.2
  1. HTT temperatures shown in °C. Numbers are presented as weight percentages of solubilized DM, ‘Solubilized DM’ is the percentage of DM solubilized during HTT pretreatment, based on mass balance after HTT pretreatment. Different superscript letters a,b,c,d indicate significantly different values (P <0.05) row-wise. DM, dry matter; HTT, hydrothermal treatment.