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Table 2 Comparison of various WS pretreatments with dry fractionation technology developed in this work

From: New dry technology of environmentally friendly biomass refinery: glucose yield and energy efficiency

Pretreatment conditions Enzymatic hydrolysis conditions Glucose (mg/g WS) Reducing sugars (mg/g WS) Solvent or water (L/Kg WS) Chemical reagent (Kg/Kg WS) Reference
Mechanical
50 - 600 μm Celluclast-1.5 L Trichoderma reesei, 50°C, 20 hours 150 ND 0 0 [27]
600 - 1000 μm 120 ND 0 0
Ball milling 240 hour, 10 μm Cellulase Trichoderma reesei, 37°C, 48 hours N.D. 270 0 0 [28]
Centrifugal milling: 270 μm N.D. 108 0 0
Milling + electrostatic fractionation: 50 -70 μm Cellulase Trichoderma Longibrachiatum 37°C, 72 hours 254* 294* 0 0 This study
Chemical
750 μm, glycerol 70%, 230°C, 4 hours Celluclast-1.5 L Trichoderma reesei, 50°C, 2.5 h 268 423 20 0 [30]
750 μm, ionic liquid/WS ratio: 25/1 w/w, 150°C, 1 hour 368 744 0.03 25
750 μm, 1% acid, 140°C, 40 minutes 176 223 20 1
Physicochemical
833 μm, water/WS ratio: 40/1, Steam explosion: 210°C, 10 minutes Cellulase BTXL Trichoderma reesei, 50°C, 72 hours ND 117 40 0 [31]
833 μm, 50% v/v acetic acid, steam explosion: 220°C, 8 minutes   ND 244 40 20  
833 μm, 70% v/v ethanol steam explosion: 220°C, 5 minutes ND 264 40 -
833 μm, supercritical CO2 190°C, 12 mPa, 30 minutes Cellulase Trichoderma reesei, 50°C, 72 hours ND 149 ND ND [32]
833 μm, steam explosion (A) 200°C, 15 minutes + supercritical CO2: 190°C, 12 mPa, 30 minutes ND 234 ND ND
  1. ND not determined; WS: wheat straw.
  2. *254 gKg-1 of glucose and 294 gKg-1 of reducing sugars obtained for F2B+ fraction after ES.