The strengthened consortium HP with
(HPP) exhibits increased ethanol production capability. (A)
P. taiwanensis boosts ethanol production by consortium HP in a dose-dependent manner. Co-fermentations were conducted with different proportions of P. taiwanensis and with α-cellulose as a carbon source at 55°C for 7 days, with HP as a control. The ratio in the legend represents the biomass ratio between the consortium and the single strain. The error bars represent SD (n = 3). (B) Cellulase enzyme activity of HP and HPP. Fermentation was conducted with α-cellulose at 55°C for 7 days, and the cellulase enzyme activities of the consortium with and without P. taiwanensis co-culture at a 17:1 biomass ratio were measured; the highest activities are shown. FPase, filter paper activity; EG, endoglucanase; CBH, exoglucanase; BG, β-glucosidase. HPP represents the new consortium obtained by co-culture of HP and P. taiwanensis. The error bars represent the SD (n = 3). (C) PCR-DGGE analysis of HP and HPP at two stages, including the highest filter paper activity (represented as FPase) and highest ethanol titer (represented as EtOH). (D) Principal component analysis (PCA) of the PCR-DGGE data in C. PC1 and PC2 explained 57.5% and 30.6% of the total variance, respectively.