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Table 2 Ethanol and lactic acid concentration, moisture, and pH in solid state fermented (SSF) round bale of whole forage rice plant

From: On-farm solid state simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of whole crop forage rice in wrapped round bale for ethanol production

Cultivar Bale number Sampling site Ethanol (g/kg DM) a Lactic acid (g/kg DM) a Moisture (%) a pH
Leaf Star 1 Upper 128.7x 24.8x 68.6x 3.96
Middle 132.6x 29.9x 67.2x 3.93
Lower 117.1x 26.7x 63.7x 3.99
2 Upper 155.3x 29.7x 68.0x 4.03
Middle 178.7x 31.4x 70.4x 4.00
Lower 169.3x 31.0x 69.7x 3.99
Tachisugata 1 Upper 42.4y 19.5y 59.0xy 4.12
Middle 45.4y 21.8xy 57.5y 4.10
Lower 178.5x 26.9x 64.2x 3.90
Tachisuzuka 1 Upper 60.5y 19.5y 58.1y 4.07
Middle 72.5y 19.4y 62.0y 4.08
Lower 133.8x 48.6x 72.0x 3.91
2 Upper 72.5y 23.1y 62.3xy 4.11
Middle 90.9y 23.5y 61.9y 4.12
Lower 143.4x 38.8x 68.3x 3.95
  1. Whole rice plant round bales (about 0.8 m height and 1 m diameter) after each SSF test (9 to 14 months’ incubation) were opened and three samples from each of the three distinct height sampling sites (upper (>60 cm), middle (30 to 60 cm), and lower (<30 cm)) in the round bale were collected individually, and ethanol and lactic acid concentration, moisture, and pH were analyzed.
  2. aDifferent alphabetical letters following the number indicate significant differences (P <0.05, Scheffe’s test) among sampling sites within the same round bale.