Xylem (fiber and vessel) cell size in WT and
-KD line. Downregulation of expression of GAUT12.1 results in increased xylem total vessel length (A), xylem lumen length (B), xylem vessel lumen diameter (C), xylem fiber cell length (E), xylem fiber cell diameter (F). Both xylem fibers and vessels were separated by maceration and approximately 80 fiber cells and 60 vessel elements from three independent PdGAUT12.1-KD transgenic lines were analyzed. Images were captured with a Nikon DS-Ri1 camera (Nikon, Melville, NY) using NIS-Elements Basic Research software. (D) Representative individual vessels of WT and PdGAUT12.1-KD lines illustrating the parameters measured. Asterisks indicate values significantly different from wild type based on ANOVA followed by Tukey’s multiple comparison test, *P < 0.05, **P < 0.001. n = 240 fibers and 180 vessels cells. The vertical bar represents standard error. Bar = 20 μm, D.